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# Current And Voltage Divider Rule.pdf

The easiest to understand, and most basic form of a passive current divider network is that of two resistors connected together in parallel. The Current Divider Rule allows us to calculate the current flowing through each parallel resistive branch as a percentage of the total current. Consider the circuit below.

## Current And Voltage Divider Rule.pdf

Here this basic current divider circuit consists of two resistors: R1, and R2 in parallel which splits the supply or source current IS between them into two separate currents IR1 and IR2 before joining together again and returning back to the source.

Three resistors are connected together to form a current divider circuit as shown below. If the circuit is fed from a 100 volts supply with a capacity of 1.5kW. Calculate the individual branch currents using the current division rule and find the equivalent circuit resistance.

But we know from above that for a parallel connected circuit, voltage is common to all components and as voltage equals current times resistance, V = I*R, we can therefore conclude that when using conductance, the voltage is equal to current divided by conductance. That is V = I/G.

In the case of three or more parallel branches, the equivalent resistance REQ is used to divide the total current into the fractional currents for each branch producing a current ratio which is equal to the inverse of their resistive values resulting in the smaller value resistance having the greatest share of the current. The supply or total current, IT being the sum of all the individual branch currents. This then makes current dividers useful for use with current sources.

It is sometimes convenient to use conductance with parallel circuits as it can help reduce the maths required for determining the branch currents through individual circuit elements that are connected together in parallel. This is because for parallel circuits the total conductance is the sum of the individual conductance values. Conductance is the reciprocal or inverse of resistance as G = 1/R. The units for conductance are Siemens, S. The conductance of an element can also be used even if the supply voltage is DC or AC for current dividers.

A voltage divider is a passive linear circuit used to create a voltage less than or equal to the input voltage. It is a conversion device composed of a high-voltage arm and a low-voltage arm. The measured high voltage acts on the device, and the output voltage is got from the low voltage arm. The components of the high and low voltage arms are usually resistors and capacitors. The corresponding devices are called resistor dividers, capacitor dividers, and resistance-capacitance voltage divider. Voltage dividers are one of the most fundamental circuits in electronics.

1.1 Voltage Divider StructureThe voltage divider is a special instrument for on-site measurement, measuring DC high voltage and AC high voltage. The voltage divider adopts a balanced equipotential shielding structure, and high-quality electronic components are used inside the body. So that it has the characteristics of accurate test, good linearity, stable performance, reasonable structure, easy to carry, simple operation, intuitive display, etc.

When considering the classic divider circuit, the formula is usually written as The following is a typical voltage divider circuit with approximately 3.3V from a 5V power supply:(This circuit can be used to connect a 5V output device to the 3.3V input on the microcontroller, such as particle photon.)

2) According to the measured voltagea) AC voltage dividerThere are two types: resistive type and capacitive type. The resistive type is composed of non-inductive resistance elements suitable for measuring AC voltages with low frequency. The capacitive type is composed of capacitive elements. It basically does not consume power and can be used for higher voltage measurement. The measurement voltage ranges from thousands of volts to millions of volts. So it has a wide rang applications.b) Impulse voltage dividerImpulse voltage is a non-periodic pulse voltage with fast changes and many harmonic components. To accurately measure its waveform and amplitude, the impulse divider is required to have good response characteristics. There are three types: resistive, capacitive, and resistance-capacitance.c) DC voltage dividerIt is composed of two (groups) resistance elements, and a high-impedance voltmeter is usually used to measure the voltage on the low-voltage arm.

b) Resistor dividerIts internal resistance is pure resistance, with characteristics of simple structure, easy to use, good stability, etc. The error generated by it when measuring the transient pulse voltage is related to the product of the resistance value and the stray capacitance to the ground, so the size and impact of the stray capacitance to the ground should be minimized, and the resistor divider should reduce inductance.

c) Resistance-capacitance dividerThe resistance-capacitance voltage divider can be divided into a series-type voltage divider and a parallel-type voltage divider according to the connection mode.The resistor-capacitor series voltage divider is also called the damping capacitor voltage divider. Recently, the high-voltage divider belongs to this type. It overcomes the residual inductance of the capacitor circuit and prevents the voltage divider from oscillating, and has excellent performance. According to the difference of the added damping, the RC series voltage divider can be divided into two types: high damping divider and low damping divider. The high damping capacitor voltage divider cannot be used as the load (wave modulation) capacitor of the impulse voltage generator. It is only used as a conversion device for measuring voltage. The series damping resistance of the low damping capacitor voltage divider is very small, and its connection will not make it difficult to generate standard waves in the test circuit. It can also be used as a load capacitor and is a general voltage divider. From the point of view of ease of use, it has more advantages than the high damping capacitor voltage divider. From the response characteristics, it is not as good as the high damping capacitor voltage divider because it also contains oscillation.Theoretically speaking, when the voltage changes rapidly, the voltage divider ratio is mainly determined by the capacitance; when the change is slow, it is determined by the resistance. The device resistance wire is tightly wound on the porcelain tube positively and negatively, and connected in parallel with each capacitor. Practice has proved that the selected resistance value cannot be too small, otherwise it will affect the output load of the generator, so it is generally selected to be relatively large. However, the effect is small. It is similar to a pure capacitive voltage divider without resistance.

3.1 Voltage Divider Basic1) The voltage divider adopts high-precision resistor and capacitor assembly, special process potting, and dry seal, so there is no oil leakage problem.2) High input impedance: the test current is reduced, the power consumption is small, the product is small and light, the performance is stable, and the measurement accuracy is high.3) The voltage divider, multi-value kilovolt meter and special cables are all placed in an aluminum alloy box, which is safe and reliable, easy to carry and transport.4) The multi-value kilovolt meter can directly read the DC average value, AC peak value, effective value, peak value and other voltage values.5) The organic composite insulating jacket is used above 150KV, which increases the surface creeping distance, and greatly reduces the height of the product. So the device is more convenient to use and carry.

3.2 Two Major Points in the Voltage Divider Circuit(1) Input terminalIt is necessary to analyze where the input signal voltage is input to the voltage divider circuit, and what is the specific input current loop. The method of determining the current loop in circuit analysis is as follows: Start from the input end of the signal voltage, follow at least two components (not necessarily resistors) to the ground.

(2) Output terminalThe signal voltage output by the voltage divider circuit must be sent to the next level circuit. Theoretically, the input of the next level circuit is the output terminal. However, sometimes it is difficult to analyze the input end of the next-level circuit. So you can use a simpler method to analyze: find all the components in the voltage divider circuit, analyze from the ground line to the upper end, and then find a certain component connects with other circuits. This connection point is the output terminal of the voltage divider circuit, and is also the output voltage of the voltage divider circuit.In the process of analyzing the voltage divider circuit, it is often necessary to figure out the size of the output voltage.The calculation method of the output voltage: Uo=R2/R1+R2Uiwhere Ui is the input voltage, Uo is the output voltage.The output voltage is less than the input voltage, because the voltage divider circuit attenuates the input signal voltage. That is, changing the size of Rl or R2 resistance can change the output voltage Uo.

Capacitor Divider(1) The distributed capacitor divider is formed by stacking multiple pulse capacitors, with only amplitude error and no waveform error.(2) The high-voltage arm of the centralized capacitor divider can use a standard capacitor filled with compressed gas. The capacitance value of this capacitor is very accurate and stable, and the dielectric loss is small. Because it is shielded, the capacitance value is not affected by surroundings.

Resistance-capacitance DividerThe high damping capacitor voltage divider cannot be used as the load (wave modulation) capacitor of the impulse voltage generator. It is only used as a conversion device for measuring voltage. The series damping resistance of the low damping capacitor voltage divider is very small, and its access will not make it difficult to generate standard waves in the test circuit. It can also be used as a load capacitor, which is a general voltage divider.